What is an abortion?
Abortion is the voluntary termination of a pregnancy prior to the development or birth of a child. The procedure expels the embryo or fetus from the body, usually before it can survive outside of the parent. There are various methods of abortion, some of which can be done at home while others require an in-clinic procedure.
Methods of Abortion
Medication abortion (0-10 weeks)
Medication abortion, also known as the “abortion pill,” entails taking two sets of medication several hours apart and is effective up to 10 weeks after an individual’s last menstrual period. The first pill, mifepristone, is administered at the clinic. Mifepristone blocks the production of progesterone, a hormone that thickens the lining of the uterus during pregnancy. The second set of pills, misoprostol, can be taken up to 48 hours later in a different location, either vaginally or buccally (placed in the cheek). Misoprostol softens the cervix and causes the uterus to expel the embryo and uterine lining, resulting in heavy bleeding and cramping slightly more intense than a menstrual period.
Aspiration Abortion (5-15 weeks)
Aspiration abortion is an in-clinic procedure that removes the embryo or fetus, along with the uterine lining, using gentle suction. Patients are given painkillers prior to the procedure, and, if it has been over 12 weeks since a patient’s last menstrual period, they may be given misoprostol to soften the cervix (the opening to the uterus). A dilator will be inserted into the cervix to stretch it prior to or during the procedure.
During the procedure itself, the doctor will insert a tube into the uterus and use a suction device to empty it. This may cause moderate cramping. The doctor may then use an instrument called a curette to ensure that the uterus is completely empty. While preparing for the procedure may take several hours, the procedure itself normally lasts between three to twenty minutes, depending on gestation.
Dilation and Evacuation (15 weeks +)
Dilation and Evacuation, also known as a D&E abortion, combines suction with the use of forceps to terminate a pregnancy. To prepare for the procedure, the patient is given painkillers and a dilator is inserted into the cervix in order to stretch it. The patient may need to return to the clinic the next day depending on how long dilation takes. During the procedure, the patient may be administered general anesthesia, or they may be given sedatives. The doctor will place a tube into the uterus and use gentle suction to remove the amniotic fluid. They will then use forceps to remove fetal tissue from the uterus. Finally, the doctor will apply suction to the uterus a second time to ensure that it is completely empty.
After an abortion
Depending on the gestation at the time of the abortion, patients may require more or less recovery time; most people, however, feel like they can return to normal activity the next day. Patients may be asked to call or to return to the clinic for a follow-up appointment to ensure that the uterus is empty. Individuals obtaining procedural abortions (aspiration or D&E) should also have someone pick them up at the clinic, as the sedatives used during the procedures impair driving ability.
How to obtain an abortion
Abortion care services are available at more than 21 locations in Maryland, including independent clinics, Planned Parenthood Health Centers, OB/GYN offices, and hospitals. Be aware, however, that not every family-planning center is there to help—a large number of facilities, often known as Crisis Pregnancy Centers, present themselves as legitimate family-planning clinics but provide disinformation in order to scare or shame individuals out of seeking abortion care. Find a list of abortion providers in Maryland here.
Depending on the gestation and the method of care, paying for an abortion out-of-pocket can cost anywhere from a few hundred to several thousand dollars. If you have private health insurance, check your plan to see if abortion care is covered – you may just need to pay a deductible or co-pay. If you are a Maryland Medicaid recipient, and want to know if Medicaid will cover your care, click here. If you cannot afford an abortion on your own, local and national organizations may be able to help. Contact the Baltimore Abortion Fund to find out more.
Is abortion dangerous? Does it cause cancer? Will it make me infertile?
No, no, and no. Anti-choice activists spread myths about abortion to keep people from seeking the care they need. These myths have been scientifically disproven time and time again, but they’re scary enough that they stick. Check out our page on abortion myths to check what’s true and what’s an anti-choice lie.
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